[SOLVED] High GC time for simple mapreduce problem


I have simulation program written in Julia that does something equivalent to this as a part of its main loop:

# Some fake data
M = [randn(100,100) for m=1:100, n=1:100]
W = randn(100,100)
work = zip(W,M)
result = mapreduce(x -> x[1]*x[2], +,work)

In other words, a simple sum of weighted matrices. Timing the above code yields

0.691084 seconds (79.03 k allocations: 1.493 GiB, 70.59% gc time, 2.79% compilation time)

I am surprised about the large number of memory allocations, as this problem should be possible to do in-place. To see if it was my use of mapreduce that was wrong I also tested the following equivalent implementation:

@time begin
    res = zeros(100,100)
    for m=1:100
        for n=1:100
            res += W[m,n] * M[m,n]

which gave

0.442521 seconds (50.00 k allocations: 1.491 GiB, 70.81% gc time)

So, if I wrote this in C++ or Fortran it would be simple to do all of this in-place. Is this impossible in Julia? Or am I missing something here…?


It is possible to do it in place like this:

function ws(W, M)
    res = zeros(100,100)
    for m=1:100
        for n=1:100
            @. res += W[m,n] * M[m, n]
    return res

and the timing is:

julia> @time ws(W, M);
  0.100328 seconds (2 allocations: 78.172 KiB)

Note that in order to perform this operation in-place I used broadcasting (I could also use loops, but it would be the same).

The problem with your code is that in line:

res += W[m,n] * M[m,n]

You get two allocations:

  1. When you do multiplication W[m,n] * M[m,n] a new matrix is allocated.
  2. When you do addition res += ... again a matrix is allocated

By using broadcasting with @. you perform an in-place operation, see https://docs.julialang.org/en/v1/manual/mathematical-operations/#man-dot-operators for more explanations.

Additionally note that I have wrapped the code inside a function. If you do not do it then access both W and M is type unstable which also causes allocations, see https://docs.julialang.org/en/v1/manual/performance-tips/#Avoid-global-variables.

Answered By – Bogumił Kamiński

Answer Checked By – Clifford M. (BugsFixing Volunteer)

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