[SOLVED] cs50 pset5 Speller optimisation

Issue

I’ve completed speller and passed all checks. But I’m still bugged about the performance. I did my best with research and running tests, but my implementation is slower by 10-20% compared to staff’s one. How can I improve my code?

    // Implements a dictionary's functionality

#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <strings.h>
#include "dictionary.h"

// Represents a node in a hash table
typedef struct node
{
    char word[LENGTH + 1];
    struct node *next;
}
node;
//Prototypes
unsigned int hash(const char *word);

// TODO: Choose number of buckets in hash table
const unsigned int N = 187751; //odd prime number bigger than word count, because math

// Hash table
node *table[N]; //may need to use calloc

//word count
int word_count = 0;

// Returns true if word is in dictionary, else false
bool check(const char *word)
{
    // TODO
    //debug
    //int hashcode = hash(word);
    //printf("bucket: %i, word: %s\n", hash(word), table[hash(word)]->word);
    for (node *tmp = table[hash(word)]; tmp != NULL; tmp = tmp->next) //iterate through bucket
    {
        if (strcasecmp(tmp->word, word) == 0) //compare strings
        {
            return true;
        }
    }
    return false;
}

// Hashes word to a number
unsigned int hash(const char *word)
{
    // TODO: Improve this hash function
    //Used Data Structures youtube course of Dr. Rob Edwards from San Diego State University mostly
    int hash = 0;
    /*int w = 0;
    //convert to upper case
    while (word[w] != '\0')
    {
        word[w] = toupper(word[w]);
        w++;
    }*/
    for (int i = 0; i <= strlen(word); i++)
    {
        hash = (31 * hash + toupper(word[i])) % N; //31 because math
        //check hash size
        /*if (hash >= N)
            {
                printf("incorrect hash!");
            }*/
    }
    return hash;
}

// Loads dictionary into memory, returning true if successful, else false
bool load(const char *dictionary)
{
    // TODO
    //open dictionary file
    FILE *dict = fopen(dictionary, "r");
    if (dict == NULL)
    {
        //printf("Could not open file.\n");
        return false;
    }
    //create temp string for word
    char *word = malloc(LENGTH + 1);
    if (word == NULL)
    {
        return false;
    }
    //read words from dictionary and write to hash table
    while (fscanf(dict, "%s", word) != EOF)
    {
        //node *tmp_word = NULL;
        node *n = malloc(sizeof(node));
        if (n == NULL)
        {
            return false;
        }
        int pos = hash(word); //run hash to find the bucket in table
        strcpy(n->word, word); //write word to temp node
        if (table[pos] == NULL) //check if node is first in bucket (may need to use calloc to create a table)
        {
            n->next = NULL;
        }
        else //if not the first, write node to the head
        {
            n->next = table[pos]; //reference first node
        }
        table[pos] = n; //write node to table
        word_count++; //count new word
    }
    fclose(dict);
    free(word);
    //debug
    /*int j = 0;
    while (j <= 11)
    {
        for (node *tmp = table[j]; tmp != NULL; tmp = tmp->next) //делаем ноду; пока не дойдем до последней; переходим к следующей
                {
                    printf("%s\n", tmp->word); //забираем значение ноды

                }
        printf("Bucket number: %i\n", j);
        j++;
    }*/
    //printf("word count:%i\n", word_count);
    return true;
}

// Returns number of words in dictionary if loaded, else 0 if not yet loaded
unsigned int size(void)
{
    return word_count;
}

// Unloads dictionary from memory, returning true if successful, else false
bool unload(void)
{
    // TODO
    for (int i = 0; i <= N; i++)
    {
        while (table[i] != NULL)
        {
            node *tmp = table[i]->next; //делаем ноду и переходим на следующую ячейку
            free(table[i]); //освобождаем текущую
            table[i] = tmp; //начинаем list со второй ячейки
        }
    }
    return true;
}

My results:

WORDS MISSPELLED:     955
WORDS IN DICTIONARY:  143091
WORDS IN TEXT:        17756
TIME IN load:         0.04
TIME IN check:        0.02
TIME IN size:         0.00
TIME IN unload:       0.01
TIME IN TOTAL:        0.07

Cs50 staff’s results:

WORDS MISSPELLED:     955
WORDS IN DICTIONARY:  143091
WORDS IN TEXT:        17756
TIME IN load:         0.02
TIME IN check:        0.02
TIME IN size:         0.00
TIME IN unload:       0.01
TIME IN TOTAL:        0.06

I’ve already played with bucket size, to no avail(((

Pset5 instructions: https://cs50.harvard.edu/x/2022/psets/5/speller/

I’m also including dictionary.h, if you need one. Check is getting string from another text file, not the one used in load.

#ifndef DICTIONARY_H
#define DICTIONARY_H

#include <stdbool.h>

// Maximum length for a word
// (e.g., pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis)
#define LENGTH 45

// Prototypes
bool check(const char *word);
unsigned int hash(const char *word);
bool load(const char *dictionary);
unsigned int size(void);
bool unload(void);

#endif // DICTIONARY_H

My question was pretty much perfectly answered by Craig Estey. His code runs uber-fast compared to mine and faster than cs50 staff’s:
Lalaland

Bigger text:
Xueqin

I’ve learned alot and am really greateful. That’s my first question here, on SO and I’ve never anticipated it to be so helpfull and friendly place.

Solution

A few issues:

  1. while (fscanf(dict, "%s", word) != EOF) is wrong. You want: while (fscanf(dict, "%s", word) == 1)
  2. Faster to store the given word into the table as uppercase. (i.e.) We do toupper only once for each word.
  3. The check function will be faster because it can [then] use strcmp instead of strcasecmp [which is slower]
  4. If we can add fields to the node struct, we can have it hold a hash value. This can speed up the check function (see NODEHASH in code below).
  5. Doing a malloc for each node is slow/wasteful. A pooled/arena/slab allocator can be faster (see FASTALLOC in code below). Again, if we can add a field to the node struct.

There are some other bugs that are documented in the code below (see the "NOTE" comments). I’ve used cpp conditionals to denote old vs. new code:

#if 0
// old code
#else
// new code
#endif

#if 1
// new code
#endif

Here is the refactored code. I’ve compiled it but not tested it:

    // Implements a dictionary's functionality

#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <strings.h>

//#include "dictionary.h"

// NOTE/BUG: dictionary.h was _not_ posted, so we have to guess
#define LENGTH      20

#ifndef NODEHASH
#define NODEHASH    1
#endif

#ifndef FASTALLOC
#define FASTALLOC   1
#endif

// Represents a node in a hash table
typedef struct node {
    char word[LENGTH + 1];
    struct node *next;
#if NODEHASH
    unsigned int hash;
#endif
#if FASTALLOC
    int alloc;
#endif
} node;

//Prototypes
unsigned int hash(const char *word);

// TODO: Choose number of buckets in hash table
// odd prime number bigger than word count, because math
// NOTE/BUG: this doesn't work too well for C (may be okay in C++) when used
// as dimension for table below
// NOTE/BUG: enum may be faster in calculations
#if 0
const unsigned int N = 187751;
#else
enum {
    N = 187751
};
#endif

// Hash table
node *table[N];                         // may need to use calloc

//word count
int word_count = 0;

// Returns true if word is in dictionary, else false
bool
check(const char *word)
{
    // TODO
    // debug
    // int hashcode = hash(word);
    // printf("bucket: %i, word: %s\n", hash(word), table[hash(word)]->word);

#if 1
    unsigned int hval = hash(word);
#endif

    // iterate through bucket
    for (node *tmp = table[hval]; tmp != NULL; tmp = tmp->next) {
#if NODEHASH
        // check hash value first -- limits number of str*cmp calls
        if (tmp->hash != hval)
            continue;
#endif

        // compare strings
// NOTE/BUG: strcasecmp is _slow_ and if we _store_ uppercase we don't need it
#if 0
        if (strcasecmp(tmp->word, word) == 0) {
            return true;
        }
#else
        if (strcmp(tmp->word, word) == 0)
            return true;
#endif
    }

    return false;
}

// Hashes word to a number
unsigned int
hash(const char *word)
{
    // TODO: Improve this hash function
    // Used Data Structures youtube course of Dr. Rob Edwards from San Diego State University mostly
    int hash = 0;

    /* int w = 0; //convert to upper case while (word[w] != '\0') { word[w] = toupper(word[w]); w++; } */

// NOTE/BUG: _without_ optimization this is O(n^2) instead of O(n) because it
// calls strlen on _each_ loop iteration
#if 0
    for (int i = 0; i <= strlen(word); i++) {
        hash = (31 * hash + toupper(word[i])) % N;  // 31 because math
        // check hash size
        /* if (hash >= N) { printf("incorrect hash!"); } */
    }
#else
    for (int chr = *word++;  chr != 0;  chr = *word++)
        hash = (31 * hash + chr) % N;   // 31 because math
#endif

    return hash;
}

#if FASTALLOC
node *freelist = NULL;
int freecount = 0;

// adjust this value to suit
#define ARENASIZE       1000

// newnode -- allocate from pool
node *
newnode(void)
{
    node *cur;

    while (1) {
        // get node from free list cache
        cur = freelist;

        // use the cached node if possible
        if (cur != NULL) {
            freelist = cur->next;
            break;
        }

        // allocate a new arena
        freelist = malloc(sizeof(node) * ARENASIZE);

        // out of memory
        if (freelist == NULL)
            break;

        // link all nodes in the arena
        node *prev = NULL;
        for (cur = freelist;  cur < &freelist[ARENASIZE];  ++cur) {
            cur->alloc = 0;
            cur->next = prev;
            prev = cur;
        }

        // mark the arena head
        freelist->alloc = 1;
    }

    return cur;
}
#endif

// Loads dictionary into memory, returning true if successful, else false
bool
load(const char *dictionary)
{
    // TODO
    // open dictionary file
    FILE *dict = fopen(dictionary, "r");

    if (dict == NULL) {
        // printf("Could not open file.\n");
        return false;
    }
    // create temp string for word
// NOTE/BUG: no need to malloc this (and it is slightly slower)
#if 0
    char *word = malloc(LENGTH + 1);
    if (word == NULL) {
        return false;
    }
#else
    char word[LENGTH + 1];
#endif

    // read words from dictionary and write to hash table
// NOTE/BUG: this scanf is wrong (and may loop too much)
#if 0
    while (fscanf(dict, "%s", word) != EOF) {
#else
    while (fscanf(dict, "%s", word) == 1) {
#endif
        // node *tmp_word = NULL;
#if FASTALLOC
        node *n = newnode();
#else
        node *n = malloc(sizeof(node));
#endif
        if (n == NULL)
            return false;

// NOTE/FIX: convert to uppercase _once_
        int idx;
        for (idx = 0;  word[idx] != 0;  ++idx)
            n->word[idx] = toupper(word[idx] & 0xFF);
        n->word[idx] = 0;

        // run hash to find the bucket in table
// NOTE/BUG: pos should be unsigned
#if 0
        int pos = hash(word);
#else
        unsigned int pos = hash(n->word);
#endif

#if 0
        strcpy(n->word, word);          // write word to temp node
#endif

#if NODEHASH
        n->hash = pos;
#endif

// NOTE/BUG: no need to check table[pos]
#if 0
        // check if node is first in bucket
        // (may need to use calloc to create a table)
        if (table[pos] == NULL)
        {
            n->next = NULL;
        }

        // if not the first, write node to the head
        else
        {
            n->next = table[pos];       // reference first node
        }
#else
        n->next = table[pos];
#endif

        table[pos] = n;                 // write node to table
        word_count++;                   // count new word
    }

    fclose(dict);
#if 0
    free(word);
#endif

    // debug
    /* int j = 0; while (j <= 11) { for (node *tmp = table[j]; tmp != NULL; tmp = tmp->next) //делаем ноду; пока не дойдем до последней; переходим к следующей { printf("%s\n", tmp->word); //забираем значение ноды

       } printf("Bucket number: %i\n", j); j++; } */
    // printf("word count:%i\n", word_count);
    return true;
}

// Returns number of words in dictionary if loaded, else 0 if not yet loaded
unsigned int
size(void)
{
    return word_count;
}

// Unloads dictionary from memory, returning true if successful, else false
#if ! FASTALLOC
bool
unload(void)
{

    // TODO
// NOTE/BUG: this goes one beyond the table end (i.e. want: i < N)
#if 0
    for (int i = 0; i <= N; i++) {
        while (table[i] != NULL) {
            node *tmp = table[i]->next; // делаем ноду и переходим на следующую ячейку

            free(table[i]);             // освобождаем текущую
            table[i] = tmp;             // начинаем list со второй ячейки
        }
    }
#else
    for (int i = 0;  i < N;  ++i) {
        node *cur = table[i];
        if (cur == NULL)
            continue;

        node *next;

        for (;  cur != NULL;  cur = next) {
            next = cur->next;
            free(cur);
        }
#endif

    return true;
}
#endif

// Unloads dictionary from memory, returning true if successful, else false
#if FASTALLOC
bool
unload(void)
{
    node *cur;
    node *next;

    // remove all nodes from the table
    for (int i = 0;  i < N;  ++i) {
        cur = table[i];
        if (cur == NULL)
            continue;

        // put all nodes in hash table back on [cached] free list
        for (;  cur != NULL;  cur = next) {
            next = cur->next;
            cur->next = freelist;
            freelist = cur;
        }

        table[i] = NULL;
    }

    cur = freelist;
    freelist = NULL;

    // trim free list to allocation/arena heads
    for (;  cur != NULL;  cur = next) {
        next = cur->next;
        if (cur->alloc) {
            cur->next = freelist;
            freelist = cur;
        }
    }

    // free the allocated nodes
    cur = freelist;
    freelist = NULL;
    for (;  cur != NULL;  cur = next) {
        next = cur->next;
        free(cur);
    }

    return true;
}
#endif

Here’s a cleaned up version of the above (I ran it through unifdef):

    // Implements a dictionary's functionality

#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <strings.h>

//#include "dictionary.h"

// NOTE/BUG: dictionary.h was _not_ posted, so we have to guess
#define LENGTH      20

// Represents a node in a hash table
typedef struct node {
    char word[LENGTH + 1];
    struct node *next;
    unsigned int hash;
    int alloc;
} node;

//Prototypes
unsigned int hash(const char *word);

// TODO: Choose number of buckets in hash table
// odd prime number bigger than word count, because math
enum {
    N = 187751
};

// Hash table
node *table[N];                         // may need to use calloc

//word count
int word_count = 0;

// Returns true if word is in dictionary, else false
bool
check(const char *word)
{
    // TODO
    // debug
    // int hashcode = hash(word);
    // printf("bucket: %i, word: %s\n", hash(word), table[hash(word)]->word);

    unsigned int hval = hash(word);

    // iterate through bucket
    for (node *tmp = table[hval]; tmp != NULL; tmp = tmp->next) {
        // check hash value first -- limits number of str*cmp calls
        if (tmp->hash != hval)
            continue;

        // compare strings
        if (strcmp(tmp->word, word) == 0)
            return true;
    }

    return false;
}

// Hashes word to a number
unsigned int
hash(const char *word)
{
    // TODO: Improve this hash function
    // Used Data Structures youtube course of Dr. Rob Edwards from San Diego State University mostly
    int hash = 0;

    /* int w = 0; //convert to upper case while (word[w] != '\0') { word[w] = toupper(word[w]); w++; } */

    for (int chr = *word++;  chr != 0;  chr = *word++)
        hash = (31 * hash + chr) % N;   // 31 because math

    return hash;
}

node *freelist = NULL;
int freecount = 0;

// adjust this value to suit
#define ARENASIZE       1000

// newnode -- allocate from pool
node *
newnode(void)
{
    node *cur;

    while (1) {
        // get node from free list cache
        cur = freelist;

        // use the cached node if possible
        if (cur != NULL) {
            freelist = cur->next;
            break;
        }

        // allocate a new arena
        freelist = malloc(sizeof(node) * ARENASIZE);

        // out of memory
        if (freelist == NULL)
            break;

        // link all nodes in the arena
        node *prev = NULL;
        for (cur = freelist;  cur < &freelist[ARENASIZE];  ++cur) {
            cur->alloc = 0;
            cur->next = prev;
            prev = cur;
        }

        // mark the arena head
        freelist->alloc = 1;
    }

    return cur;
}

// Loads dictionary into memory, returning true if successful, else false
bool
load(const char *dictionary)
{
    // TODO
    // open dictionary file
    FILE *dict = fopen(dictionary, "r");

    if (dict == NULL) {
        // printf("Could not open file.\n");
        return false;
    }
    // create temp string for word
// NOTE/BUG: no need to malloc this (and it is slightly slower)
    char word[LENGTH + 1];

    // read words from dictionary and write to hash table
// NOTE/BUG: this scanf is wrong (and may loop too much)
    while (fscanf(dict, "%s", word) == 1) {
        // node *tmp_word = NULL;
        node *n = newnode();
        if (n == NULL)
            return false;

// NOTE/FIX: convert to uppercase _once_
        int idx;
        for (idx = 0;  word[idx] != 0;  ++idx)
            n->word[idx] = toupper(word[idx] & 0xFF);
        n->word[idx] = 0;

        // run hash to find the bucket in table
// NOTE/BUG: pos should be unsigned
        unsigned int pos = hash(n->word);

        n->hash = pos;

// NOTE/BUG: no need to check table[pos]
        n->next = table[pos];

        table[pos] = n;                 // write node to table
        word_count++;                   // count new word
    }

    fclose(dict);

    // debug
    /* int j = 0; while (j <= 11) { for (node *tmp = table[j]; tmp != NULL; tmp = tmp->next) //делаем ноду; пока не дойдем до последней; переходим к следующей { printf("%s\n", tmp->word); //забираем значение ноды

       } printf("Bucket number: %i\n", j); j++; } */
    // printf("word count:%i\n", word_count);
    return true;
}

// Returns number of words in dictionary if loaded, else 0 if not yet loaded
unsigned int
size(void)
{
    return word_count;
}

// Unloads dictionary from memory, returning true if successful, else false
bool
unload(void)
{
    node *cur;
    node *next;

    // remove all nodes from the table
    for (int i = 0;  i < N;  ++i) {
        cur = table[i];
        if (cur == NULL)
            continue;

        // put all nodes in hash table back on [cached] free list
        for (;  cur != NULL;  cur = next) {
            next = cur->next;
            cur->next = freelist;
            freelist = cur;
        }

        table[i] = NULL;
    }

    cur = freelist;
    freelist = NULL;

    // trim free list to allocation/arena heads
    for (;  cur != NULL;  cur = next) {
        next = cur->next;
        if (cur->alloc) {
            cur->next = freelist;
            freelist = cur;
        }
    }

    // free the allocated nodes
    cur = freelist;
    freelist = NULL;
    for (;  cur != NULL;  cur = next) {
        next = cur->next;
        free(cur);
    }

    return true;
}

UPDATE #2:

I’ve already submitted my version. Just trying to understand the subject better. –
meotet

Okay, because of that, I’ve produced a final version that is my best effort for speed. I did more refactoring than I would if you were still working on it.

Things to note …

Doing a single malloc for each node is wasteful. malloc is relatively slow. Note that in your benchmark timings, it was largely the load phase that was slower than the staff implementation.

Also, there is a hidden struct that malloc places in the memory immediately before the pointer it returns that it uses for keeping track of the allocations. This struct takes up space and for small allocations like the node struct, the extra memory overhead can be significant.

Better to call malloc and allocate a large number of node structs in a contiguous chunk or array. Further allocations can come from within that chunk.
This is similar to "slab allocation", "object pools", or "memory pools":

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slab_allocation

  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_pool_pattern

  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_pool

In the code below, nodes are allocated in chunks of 1000. This reduces the number of malloc calls from 100,000 to approximately 100. This version has improved speed over my last allocator because it uses an extra "segment" (aka "arena") struct to control allocations. It no longer needs to prelink each node struct into a "freelist" or keep track of whether a node is the first node in a given piece of memory received from malloc.

No need to do toupper/tolower when reading the dictionary. Because the dictionary is guaranteed to be all lowercase and have only one word per line, it is faster to use fgets to read the dictionary. We can read the dictionary word directly into the word field of a given node struct [if we do the node allocation before doing the fgets].

When computing the hash, we don’t need to do % N on each iteration. Due to the nature of modular arithmetic, we can do the remainder operation once at the end.

We can also store the hash value into the node struct. Then, in check we can compare the hash values and skip some [expensive] strcmp calls. In your code, because N is so large, most hash buckets only have one or two entries, so this speedup may have little effect [and may be slightly slower].

In check, it’s better to copy the argument word into a temporary buffer, lowercasing as we go once. Then, we can use the faster strcmp instead of the slower strcasecmp. This works regardless of whether we store the hash value in the node struct or not. Again, because of the large N value, this speedup may be of limited effect.

Anyway, here is the refactored code:

// fix2.c -- Implements a dictionary's functionality

#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <strings.h>

#include "dictionary.h"

#if _USE_ZPRT_
#define dbgprt(_fmt...)             printf(_fmt)
#else
#define dbgprt(_fmt...)             do { } while (0)
#endif

#ifndef NODEHASH
#define NODEHASH    1
#endif

#ifndef FASTNODE
#define FASTNODE    1
#endif

// Represents a node in a hash table
typedef struct node {
    char word[LENGTH + 1 + 1];
    struct node *next;
#if NODEHASH
    unsigned int hash;
#endif
} node;

//Prototypes
unsigned int hash(const char *word);

// TODO: Choose number of buckets in hash table
// odd prime number bigger than word count, because math
#ifndef N
#define N 187751
#endif

// Hash table
node *table[N];                         // may need to use calloc

// word count
int word_count = 0;

// 31 because math
// modulus only really needed to clip hash to table index
// so do it _once_ by caller of hash/hash2
#if 0
#define HASH \
    hash = (31 * hash + chr) % N
#else
#define HASH \
    hash = (31 * hash) + chr
#endif

// Hashes word to a number and copies lowercase chars to output buffer
unsigned int
hash2(char *dest,const char *word)
{
    unsigned int hash = 0;

    for (int chr = *word++;  chr != 0;  chr = *word++) {
        chr = tolower((unsigned char) chr);
        HASH;
        *dest++ = chr;
    }

    *dest = 0;

    return hash;
}

// Returns true if word is in dictionary, else false
bool
check(const char *word)
{
    char tmp[LENGTH + 10];

    unsigned int hval = hash2(tmp,word);
    unsigned int hidx = hval % N;

    // iterate through bucket
    for (node *cur = table[hidx];  cur != NULL;  cur = cur->next) {
        // check hash value first -- limits number of str*cmp calls
#if NODEHASH
        if (cur->hash != hval)
            continue;
#endif

        if (strcmp(cur->word, tmp) == 0)
            return true;
    }

    return false;
}

// Hashes word to a number
unsigned int
hash(const char *word)
{
    unsigned int hash = 0;

    for (int chr = *word++;  chr != 0;  chr = *word++)
        HASH;

    return hash;
}

// adjust this value to suit
#ifndef ARENASIZE
#define ARENASIZE       1000
#endif

typedef struct seg seg_t;
struct seg {
    seg_t *seg_next;                // next segment
    int seg_count;                  // number of used nodes in this segment
    node seg_node[ARENASIZE];       // nodes in this segment
};

node *nodelist;                     // list of freed nodes
seg_t *seglist;                     // head of linked list of segments

// newnode -- allocate from pool
node *
newnode(void)
{
    seg_t *seg;
    node *cur;

    while (1) {
        // get node from free node cache
        // use the cached node if possible
        // this only happens if freenode were called [which it isn't]
        cur = nodelist;
        if (cur != NULL) {
            nodelist = cur->next;
            break;
        }

        // try to allocate from current segment
        seg = seglist;
        if (seg != NULL) {
            if (seg->seg_count < ARENASIZE) {
                cur = &seg->seg_node[seg->seg_count++];
                break;
            }
        }

        // allocate a new segment
        seg = malloc(sizeof(*seg));

        // out of memory
        if (seg == NULL)
            break;

        // mark segment as completely unused
        seg->seg_count = 0;

        // attach to segment list
        seg->seg_next = seglist;
        seglist = seg;
    }

    return cur;
}

// freenode -- free a node
void
freenode(node *cur)
{

#if FASTNODE
    cur->next = nodelist;
    nodelist = cur;
#else
    free(cur);
#endif
}

// segunload -- release all segments
void
segunload(void)
{
    seg_t *seg;
    seg_t *next;

    seg = seglist;
    seglist = NULL;

    for (;  seg != NULL;  seg = next) {
        next = seg->seg_next;
        free(seg);
    }
}

// Unloads dictionary from memory, returning true if successful, else false
bool
unload(void)
{
    node *cur;

    // remove all nodes from the table
    for (int i = 0;  i < N;  ++i) {
        cur = table[i];

        // put all nodes in hash table back on [cached] free list
        // NOTE: not really necessary
#if FASTNODE
        word_count = 0;
        cur = NULL;
#else
        node *next;
        for (;  cur != NULL;  cur = next, --word_count) {
            next = cur->next;
            freenode(cur);
        }
#endif

        table[i] = cur;
    }

    segunload();

    return true;
}

// Loads dictionary into memory, returning true if successful, else false
bool
load(const char *dictionary)
{

    // open dictionary file
    FILE *dict = fopen(dictionary, "r");
    if (dict == NULL)
        return false;

    // read words from dictionary and write to hash table
    while (1) {
#if FASTNODE
        node *n = newnode();
#else
        node *n = malloc(sizeof(*n));
#endif
        if (n == NULL)
            return false;

        char *word = n->word;

        if (fgets(word,sizeof(n->word),dict) == NULL) {
            freenode(n);
            break;
        }

        // strip newline
#if 0
        word += strlen(word);
        if (--word >= n->word) {
            if (*word == '\n');
                *word = 0;
        }
#else
        word = strchr(word,'\n');
        if (word != NULL)
            *word = 0;
#endif

        // run hash to find the bucket in table
        unsigned int pos = hash(n->word);

#if NODEHASH
        n->hash = pos;
#endif

        // put node in hash table
        pos %= N;
        n->next = table[pos];
        table[pos] = n;

        word_count++;
    }

    fclose(dict);

    // DEBUG: show the bucket counts
#if _USE_ZPRT_
    node *cur;
    int mincount = 0;
    int maxcount = 0;
    int buckcount = 0;
    int totcount = 0;

    for (int i = 0;  i < N;  ++i) {
        cur = table[i];
        if (cur == NULL)
            continue;

        int count = 0;
        for (;  cur != NULL;  cur = cur->next)
            ++count;

        printf("load: BUCKET/%d count=%d\n",i,count);

        if (i == 0) {
            mincount = count;
            maxcount = count;
        }

        if (count < mincount)
            mincount = count;
        if (count > maxcount)
            maxcount = count;
        totcount += count;

        ++buckcount;
    }

    printf("load: TOTAL buckcnt=%d/%d mincount=%d maxcount=%d avgcount=%d/%d\n",
        buckcount,N,mincount,maxcount,totcount / buckcount,totcount / N);
#endif

    return true;
}

// Returns number of words in dictionary if loaded, else 0 if not yet loaded
unsigned int
size(void)
{
    return word_count;
}

Answered By – Craig Estey

Answer Checked By – Mildred Charles (BugsFixing Admin)

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